At the national level, we help policy makers reconcile economic, social and environmental objectives to ensure that their country’s development path is sustainable and that the lives of citizens improve. provide the framework for policies that promote not just growth but development in this more comprehensive sense.
Some argue that sustainable development is necessary if human want to stay alive, while some oppose to sustainable development as they placed sustainability in the opposite side of liveability and suspect that these practices may hinder their present luxurious lifestyle.
The rights of indigenous peoples and local communities to access forest resources, use forests, and receive direct benefits from development of forest resources are recognized by many international agreements (Table 14 below). However, the extent to which these rights are recognized at the national level varies. Some countries have laws that explicitly recognize the legal rights of indigenous peoples to access, use, and own forests; some retain national ownership of forested land while allowing access and management by indigenous peoples; and others do not recognize any rights of indigenous peoples. Even when rights are recognized, they can be violated through corruption; for example the community’s right to participation could be violated if a company bribes certain members of the community in exchange for a large concession without the consent of the full community. The rights of local communities and indigenous peoples are recognized in definitions of sustainable forest management within certification systems. Community forest enterprises, in which forest resources are managed directly by communities (Box 19 below), are examples of communities exercising their right to access, use, and benefit from the forests.
Along with environment and economics, social well-being is one of the three pillars of sustainability (Brack, 2010). Social impacts cannot be ignored in sustainable procurement. If poorly managed, social aspects can lead to conflict between forest companies, communities, and governments with negative effects for all. For example, local people may suffer from inadequate or inappropriate measures to resolve conflicts. Bad publicity surrounding a conflict can damage a company’s reputation, and disruptions or delays in production can increase investment costs and cause loss of market share. Governments can face civil instability, loss of forest-sector revenues, and loss of investment opportunities (Wilson, 2009).
Community forest management involves efforts to include the people who live in and around forests in decisions about the forest’s management. It devolves the decision-making power to the community and the members of the community benefit directly from the forest management. In principle, community forest management can create a source of stable income by providing incentives for local communities to keep their land forested, thus conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services and contributing to poverty reduction and economic development (Bowler et al., 2010). In some cases, community forest management involves collaborations with civil-society organizations, government, and donor agencies.
Using this book, you can
try to formulate your own definition as
you learn more about the relationships
among its main components—the eco-nomic, social, and environmental factors
of sustainable development—and as you
decide on their relative significance
based on your own system of values.
According to the classical definition
given by the United Nations World
Commission on Environment and
Development in 1987, development is
sustainable if it “meets the needs of the
present without compromising the abil-ity of future generations to meet their
own needs.” It is usually understood that
this “intergenerational” equity would be
impossible to achieve in the absence of
present-day social equity , if the eco-nomic activities of some groups of peo-ple continue to jeopardize the well-being
of people belonging to other groups or
living in other parts of the world.
Imagine, for example, that emissions of
greenhouse gases,generated mainly by
highly industrialized countries, lead to
global warming and flooding of certain
low-lying islands—resulting in the dis-placement and impoverishment of entire
island nations (see Chapter 14).
This pillar supports initiatives like: renewable energy, reducing fossil fuel consumption and emissions, sustainable agriculture and fishing, organic farming, tree planting and reducing deforestation, recycling, and better waste management....
Conversely, slow human development
can put an end to fast economic growth.
According to the Human Development
Report 1996, “during 1960–1992 not a
single country succeeded in moving from
lopsided development with slow human
development and rapid growth to a vir-tuous circle in which human develop-ment and growth can become mutually
reinforcing.” Since slower human devel-opment has invariably been followed by
slower economic growth, this growth
pattern was labeled a “dead end.”
Sustainable development is a term
widely used by politicians all over the
world, even though the notion is still
rather new and lacks a uniform interpre-tation.
So sustainable development is
about equity, defined as equality of
opportunities for well-being, as well as
about comprehensiveness of objectives.
Figure 1.2 shows just a few of the many
objectives, which, if ignored, threaten to
slow down or reverse development in
be sustainable, it must rely on a certain
amount of natural resources and services
provided by nature, such as pollution
absorption and resource regeneration.
More ov er, economic growth must be
constantly nourished by the fruits of
human development, such as higher
qualified workers capable of technologi-cal and managerial innovations along
with opportunities for their efficient use:
more and better jobs, better conditions
for new businesses to grow, and greater
democracy at all levels of decisionmaking
following chapters you will find many
examples of such interconnections.
Obviously, balancing so many diverse
objectives of development is an enormous
challenge for any country.
To delve this complexity, solid definitions must be proposed for development and sustainable development in order for a framework to be established through which these complexities can be understood.
Land is also a natural resource and with an ever-increasing world population, it becomes scarcer. Since the earliest times, people have fought wars over land. The usefulness of land for development and to sustain life is also dependent on natural cycles like rainfall and climate. Land is also power and this power lies in the hands of a few, creating imbalances throughout the world. These imbalances cause poverty and general decay of quality of life.