Nanoscale transistors may someday lead to computers that are faster, more powerful, and more energy efficient than those used today. Nanotechnology also holds the potential to exponentially increase information storage capacity; soon your computer’s entire memory will be able to be stored on a single tiny chip. In the energy arena, nanotechnology will enable high-efficiency, low-cost batteries and solar cells.
The state funds have already been put to research that is used to deliver products now and could result to the development of new ones within the next three years (Prasad, 2008).
The author concludes that the nanotechnology is a new technology that has begun recently.
However, all of the above examples of technologies are not considered nanotechnology, mainly because they do not use specific atomic instructions and actions to achieve desired properties and functions of the materials or products. As we progress into a whole new spectrum of technological advances, one of those will be Nanotechnology.
In particular, remarkable advancements in the development of nanotechnology over the past decade have created an opportunity to understand systems and processes at scales particularly relevant to bioremediation. The National Nanotechnology Initiative defines nanotechnology as, “Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 –100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nano-scale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size” (). Nanotechnology applications and tools utilize the unique properties of matter (e.g. electrical, optical, acoustic, and magnetic) found at the nanometer scale to create a wealth of applications for sensing and detection, often with real-time output capabilities.
Despite the tremendous potential for nanotechnology-based tools to address the mechanisms of bioremediation, research that uses nanotechnologies to further our understanding of bioremediation has been limited. Many of these new nanotechnology tools have been used successfully to understand basic molecular, cellular and environmental properties in biomedical, national security, and environmental monitoring applications. It is foreseeable that these innovative nanotechnology-based approaches, designed for other applications, may be used (or adapted) to address basic, mechanistic issues associated with bioremediation.
The National Science Foundationdefines nanotech as, "Research and technology development at the atomic,molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomenaand materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devicesand systems that have novel properties and functions because of their smalland/or intermediate size." By this definition, some kinds of nanotechnologyexist already.
This paper provides a brief overview of the problems and benefits createdby nanotechnology, and substantiates the claim that a variety of ethicalsystems will be necessary to deal appropriately with the range of issuesraised by nanotech.
Interviews, questionnaires and target groups were among the various methods used to collect the information (Bergeson, 2010).
The author identifies how nanotechnology is involved in building specific materials portion by portion.
Arunan Nadarajah a provisional assistant dean for inquiry at the UT’s college of engineering explained that one could established a minor enterprise in a garage that develops a biomedical device by the use of nanotechnology despite starting small, an investor may end up making millions of money.
The paper addresses how to improve the economy using simpler and easier ways for example nanotechnology.
The article provides an example of Michigan City, which is driven by auto manufacturing industry, university exploration and economic progress efforts.
The article also reveals how several industries in Ohio employ nanotechnology to improve their economy.
The anticipated outcome of this FOA is to achieve a better mechanistic understanding of biological interactions involved in bioremediation using nanotechnology-based approaches. It is anticipated that grants funded under this award will move the field closer to understanding topics such as: how contaminants are degraded, what enzymes are utilized, and which organisms are responsible. With a better understanding of these phenomena, we will be better equipped to determine and therefore overcome the rate-limiting steps in bioremediation applications, such as lack of nutrients or critical bacterial species, or co-contaminant toxicity. Hence, research from this funding opportunity may be useful to determine where and when bioremediation is mechanistically feasible and with well-described degradation pathways ensuring safe and effective long-term application.
The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled “” by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see" individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.
It is expected that research proposals will integrate emerging nanotechnologies with basic research needs in bioremediation; therefore, applications without these two components will be considered non-responsive. Examples of non-responsiveness or studies that would be outside of the scope of this FOA include, but may not be limited to, the following: