Traditionally, the terms psychopath and antisocial personality disorder have not been used for individuals under the age of 18. Instead, several other terms and traits are associated with children and adolescents that are often linked with the eventual development of adult psychopathy. These terms include: interpersonal callousness (IC), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), inattention (IN), and conduct problems (CP) and impulsivity.
Blackburn, R. (1988). On moral judgments and personality disorders: The myth of psychopathic personality revisited. (4), 505-512. doi:10.1192/bjp.153.4.505 Psychopathic personality has always been a contentious concept, but it continues to be used in clinical practice and research. It also has its contemporary synonyms in the categories of antisocial personality disorder in DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and "personality disorder with predominantly asocial or sociopathic manifestation" in ICD-9 (World Health Organization, 1978), and some overlap between these and the legal category of psychopathic disorder identified in the English Mental Health Act 1983 is commonly assumed. Although the literal meaning of "psychopathic" nothing more specific than psychologically damaged, the term has long since been transmogrified to mean socially damaging, and as currently used, it implies a specific category of people inherently committed to antisocial behaviour as a consequence of personal abnormalities or deficiencies. . . . The prominence of 'secondary psychopaths' and of borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic disorders in these populations clearly indicates that there is no single type of abnormal personality that is prone to chronic rule violation. Nor, of course, are these categories confined to the antisocial. It must be concluded that the current concept of psychopathic or antisocial personality remains 'a mythical entity'. The taxonomic error of confounding different universes of discourse has resulted in a diagnostic category that embraces a variety of deviant personalities. . . . To define a disorder of personality in terms of socially deviant behaviour is to prejudge the issue. Our understanding of how the attributes of the person contribute to socially deviant or other problematic behavior progress when we have an adequate system for describing the universe of personality deviation. Focus on an ill-conceived category of psychopathic personality has merely served to distract attention from the development of such a system.
The long history of heterogeneity in both terminology and theory about psychopathy continues. The modern era of thinking about psychopathy begins with Cleckley's work, originally done in 1941. Cleckley's emphasis of the psychopath as a constellation of various personality traits was essentially overturned by the American psychiatric establishment in revisions to the DSM, culminating in 1980 in a behaviorally based description and the use of the term antisocial personality disorder. Robert Hare, through his writing and widely popular testing initiatives, returned to a personality/trait approach derived from Cleckley's original factors. Hare's approach and tests have been particularly influential both in practical forensic settings and in academic research. Although a number of other tests of psychopathy have been developed and a number of authors have expressed reservations about Hare, Hare's approach has dominated. Hare has also been important in popularizing psychopathy in the lay public, especially via his 1993 book and by the 2006 a work he co-authored, examining the psychopath in a business context. This business/leadership theme was later followed up by Lawrence (2010). Hare's works have tended to be somewhat sensationalized and have co-mingled academic and lay (newspaper type) accounts. Despite much research on neurophysiological correlates of psychopathy, no clear consensus has developed yet concerning a neuropsychological theory of psychopathy. Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed.
J. Reid Meloy (1988, 2001) developed the modern psychoanalytic view of psychopathy. (1988) approached the issue of causation from multiple perspectives, emphasizing the severe pathological narcissism of the psychopath and his/her biologically-based attachment disorder. A collection of papers he edited,(2001), offered a historical review of past psychoanalytic contributions, although these papers focus more on psychological and environmental factors. Meloy (2007a) writes that "A substantial body of research has shown that, at most, only one out of three patients with antisocial personality disorder has severe psychopathy. . . . Psychopathy is not synonymous with behavioral histories of criminality or the categorical diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, although it is often a correlate of both in severe cases" (pp. 2-3). Meloy (2007b) summarizes his view of the psychopath by underlining three factors: no attachment, underarousal and minimal anxiety. "The more severe the psychopathy, the more psychobiologically rooted is the cause" (Meloy, 2007b, p. 8) and proceeds, on this basis, to separate out the "primary psychopath" from those who, by comparison, seem barely to merit the diagnosis of psychopathy at all. See Carveth (2007).
In a reaction to the DSM, in 1980, Cleckley's criteria were reduced to five factors by Hare: (1) an inability to develop warm, genuine relationships with others, a lack of empathy and a callous disregard for the rights and feelings of others; (2) an unstable, transient lifestyle, with an absence of long-term commitments or plans; (3) a general inability to accept responsibility for persistent antisocial behavior; (4) an absence of clinically significant intellectual and psychiatric problems; (5) and the presence of weak or unstable behavioral controls. On the basis of these five factors, Hare developed his original 22 item checklist (Hare 1980).
Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, presented the paper "The Case of Sustainable Management of Solid Waste in Germany: Practical Lessons for Nigeria based on the Country State of Bremen" at the 2nd International Summit: Waste Summit 2015, Financing Management In Developing Economies, 22nd - 24th April 2015, Lagos, Nigeria (see the ). The Waste Summit was organized by the Waste Management Society Of Nigeria (WAMASON) and the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). These are leading environmental organizations in Nigeria (see the two websites: and ). Professor Reuben A. Alabi is the Project Director of the Research Programme "Environment and Development Management Nigeria-Germany: Comparing Waste Management Value Chains" at IWIM, University of Bremen. At Lagos, the Paper and a Power Point Presentation were given. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is Consultant and Senior Advisor in the Project since January 2015. The duration of the Project is through end of 2017.
Howard, R. C. (1986). Psychopathy: A psychobiological perspective. (6), 795-806. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(86)90078-4 After critically examining the concept of psychopathy and reviewing the major existing theories of psychopathy in the light of a psychobiological conception of abnormal behaviour (ohman, 1981), this paper attempts to present an integrated, psychobiological model of psychopathy. Essentially this analyses psychopathy in terms of the predisposing influences, the triggering environmental events which initiate psychopathic behaviour, and the neurophsychological mechanisms which mediate it. It is suggested that individuals who show chronic antisocial behaviour, conforming to the North American term 'sociopath', may demonstrate a maturational deficit but do not necessarily show a psychopathic personality disorder. The latter is said to be characterised, at a personality trait level, by high Impulsiveness and Psychopathy (Blackburn, 1982 a, b), reflecting interactive deficits in goal direction and affect. At a dynamic (state) level, a psychopathic personality disorder is said to be characterised by a lack of coping, reflecting either, in the case of the secondary psychopath, a deficit in primary appraisal, (over-perception of threat), or in the case of the primary psychopath, a deficit in secondary appraisal (low perceived control over aversive environmental events). It is further suggested that a genetic predisposition to social withdrawal and exposure to an uncontrollably aversive early environment may interact to predispose an individual to develop a psychopathic personality disorder in adulthood. . . . There will be yet others within the broad class of so-called 'sociopathic' individuals who are neither primary nor secondary psychopaths. These individuals will not be particularly susceptible to stress either in the form of boredom or threat, and so episodes of 'psychopathic' behaviour will not readily be triggered. In general, therefore, although often recidivistically criminal, they should not be regarded as psychopathic in the sense of being personality disordered and would therefore more properly be detained in prison than in an institution for mentally abnormal offenders. Others again may tread a tightrope between legality and illegality and correspond to the 'non-institutionalised psychopath' (Widom, 1977), who while sharing some of the personality characteristics of the criminal psychopath, does not generally engage in antisocial behaviour.
Hare, R. D. (1980). A research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations.(2), 111-119. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(80)90028-8 This paper describes an early phase in the development of new research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations. The scale is meant to be a sort of operational definition of the procedures that go into making global ratings of psychopathy. While the interrater reliability of these ratings is very high ( > 0.85) they are difficult to make, require a considerable amount of experience, and the procedures involved are not easily communicated to other investigators. Following a series of analyses, 22 items were chosen as representative of the type of information used in making global ratings. Two investigators then used interview and case-history data to complete the 22-item checklist for 143 male prison inmates. The correlation between the two sets of total checklist scores was 0.93 and coefficient alpha was 0.88, indicating a very high degree of scale reliability. The correlation between the total checklist scores and global ratings of psychopathy was 0.83. A series of multivariate analyses explored the factorial structure of the scale and demonstrated its ability to discriminate very accurately between inmates with high and low ratings of psychopathy. Preliminary indications are that the checklist will hold up well to crossvalidation. . . . The Cleckley criteria can be reduced to five factors: (1) an inability to develop warm, genuine relationships with others, a lack of empathy and a callous disregard for the rights and feelings of others; (2) an unstable, transient lifestyle, with an absence of long-term commitments or plans; (3) a general inability to accept responsibility for persistent antisocial behavior; (4) an absence of clinically significant intellectual and psychiatric problems; (5) and the presence of weak or unstable behavioral controls (Hare 1980). . . . Presents Hare's Original 22 item Psychopathy Checklist (PCL)
Professor Wohlmuth was invited by the President of the UN Economic and Social Council to participate at the Global ECOSOC Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe as a speaker on "Industrialization based on Agricultural Development". Global Meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City emphasize the role of Sustainable Development Goal Nine (SDG 9) on Sustainable Industrialization, Infrastructure Development and Innovation. This will be an ongoing task of ECOSOC. ECOSOC has the lead in implementing the 17 SDGs.
Guest researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi extends his research stay in Bremen for three more years. The new Research Programme for 2018-2020 was recently presented as a Letter of Intentions and discussed with Professor Wohlmuth. It has three major components, comprising major policy issues of agroindustry development in Nigeria (Crop productivity, Public expenditure for agriculture at state level, and Combatting youth unemployment through agriculture development).
Professor Alabi was appointed in March 2017 as a Full Professor of Agricultural Economics at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the University of Bremen, Professor Jochen Zimmermann, had extended the invitation. Professor Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior project adviser in these projects.
Preparations are ongoing for the research visit of Professor Chunji Yun, Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan. He will work for a year in Bremen on the research topic of "Production Integration and Labour Market Interdependencies in the European Union." This is his second research visit at IWIM for a period of one year. The Dean has extended an invitation to him for a year.
Further on, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the research project of Yves Bagna who has constructed a new "Porter Competitiveness Index", based on Porter's Diamond Theory. Throughout the research period Professor Wohlmuth was the main adviser to the project. The book is now published by the Research Institute of IWVWW e. V. at Berlin, and further essays on the methodology are forthcoming. Yves Bagna has also compared the new "Porter Competitiveness Index" with the long-established "Global Competitiveness Index" of the Word Economic Forum. Yves Bagna, an engineer and economist from Cameroon, has during his research also visited the Institute of Professor Michael Porter at the Harvard Business School.
Also, Professor Wohlmuth was active to review a chapter for a new UNIDO book about Industrialization in Africa, in his function as the lead author of the chapter. He has also revised and extended a background paper on the issues for UNIDO.
In addition, Professor Wohlmuth has peer-reviewed articles for international and African journals, such as the prestigious journal Comparative Economic Studies. As the number of African refereed journals increases, the demand for evaluations rises. Members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen are invited to support such activities.
Work on the volumes 20 and 21 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is progressing. On Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies in Sudan, a cooperation is under way with Professor Samia Satti Nour from the University of Khartoum, a leading international expert on STI policies. The Cooperation, which is targeting on issues of "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Sudan", is advancing towards a separate Unit (a collection of papers) in Volume 20. A Unit on "STI Frameworks for Africa" is prepared in Cooperation with Patrick N. Osakwe, UNCTAD, Geneva and Nazar Hassan, UNESCO, Cairo. A Unit on STI Policies in Nigeria is done in cooperation with Professor Alabi. Other Units will be prepared on issues of Human Resources Development and STI, on STI Policies in North Africa, and on Publications on STI Policies: Book Reviews and Book Notes.
The Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) Tunisia has published four language versions (English, French, Arabic, German) of a study on "Elements of an Employment Strategy for Tunisia". Professor Wohlmuth is one of the three authors, a joint work of three development economists working on Africa since decades.
Various publications were released by Professor Wohlmuth on the middle class in Africa, on deindustrialization and reindustrialization in Tunisia, on transformative regional integration in Africa, and on guidelines for policymakers in Africa to promote global and regional value chains.