Assignment 2: Discussion—Ethical, Social, and Political Issues In your response to this assignment, you will provide in-text citations and a ‘References’ section following your APA Manual (6th ed.). You will reference your text and one other scholarly reference in your response to this assignment. Make sure you use your spelling checker and grammar checker prior to submitting your work. I look forward to your posts!
"Ethics refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues.” The pharmaceutical industry confronts several dilemmas every year.
The terms ‘practitioner’ and ‘client’ are used in the same way as defined in Ethics for counselling and psychotherapy (see page 2). Practitioners’ behaviour may vary from these guidelines provided the variation is ethically justifiable; the client is supportive of the variation; it is demonstrably to the benefit of the client; and that practitioners are willing to be appropriately accountable to people affected, and this Association for their practice and the reputation of therapy in general.
Variations in client needs and the diversity of settings within which counselling and psychotherapy services are delivered have also been carefully considered. Clients vary in their requirements in order to communicate effectively and to gain access to services. Ethically aware services strive to meet these needs and to avoid excluding someone from receiving a service or lowering the quality of that service solely on the grounds of a client’s learning difficulty or physical disability. Services may be provided by the independent practitioner working alone, one or more practitioners working to provide a service within an agency or large organisation, specialists working in multidisciplinary teams, and by specialist teams of counsellors and psychotherapists. Most work is undertaken face to face but there are also a growing number of telephone and online services. Some practitioners are moving between these different settings and modes of delivery during the course of their work and are therefore required to consider what constitutes good practice in different settings. All practitioners encounter the challenge of responding to the diversity of their clients and finding ways of working effectively with them. This statement therefore responds to the complexity of delivering counselling and psychotherapy services in contemporary society by directing attention to significant issues that practitioners ought to consider and resolve in the specific circumstances of their work.
b) a current member of the Association who may bring complaints for services sought or received directly from another member; or who has witnessed poor practice delivered by another member; or on behalf of another where their written permission has been obtained and where that person is unable to bring the complaint on their own behalf (explanation is required in writing as to the nature of the inability); or
Non-maleficence involves: avoiding sexual, financial, emotional or any other form of client exploitation; avoiding incompetence or malpractice; not providing services when unfit to do so due to illness, personal circumstances or intoxication. The practitioner has an ethical responsibility to strive to mitigate any harm caused to a client even when the harm is unavoidable or unintended. Holding appropriate insurance may assist in restitution. Practitioners have personal and professional responsibility to challenge, where appropriate, the incompetence or malpractice of others; and to contribute to any investigation and/or adjudication concerning professional practice which falls below that of a reasonably competent practitioner and/or risks bringing discredit upon the profession.
Beneficence: a commitment to promoting the client’s well-being
The principle of beneficence means acting in the best interests of the client based on professional assessment. It directs attention to working strictly within one’s limits of competence and providing services on the basis of adequate training or experience. Ensuring that the client’s best interests are achieved requires systematic monitoring of practice and outcomes by the best available means. It is considered important that research and systematic reflection inform practice. There is an obligation to use regular and on-going supervision to enhance the quality of the services provided and to commit to updating practice by continuing professional development. An obligation to act in the best interests of a client may become paramount when working with clients whose capacity for autonomy is diminished because of immaturity, lack of understanding, extreme distress, serious disturbance or other significant personal constraints.
Health behaviors and knowledge are unconsciously learned, habitual, and not routinely examined. Often, health behavior is unconsciously copied from others in the immediate social context. A health education program is generally concerned about getting people to abandon current assumptions and apply new knowledge to a deeply engrained lifestyle. The program not only imparts new information and skills to the target audience but also challenges personal beliefs, values, and lifestyles reinforced by families, communities, government, and a variety of institutions with vested philanthropic and business interests in health. This dual goal of unlearning old behaviors and learning new behaviors requires the audience to adapt considerably on a personal level and makes your work more challenging.
These environmental forces can also be a part of the solution. Constituencies or stakeholders are not necessarily the target audience but they lend support or provide contradictory information on the health issue. For example, changing children’s health literacy starts with the parents who carry the health message to the family. Important communication strategies used to influence these external groups include the broad area of public relations and direct communications with the medical community.
Many public health issues are controversial and a health communications campaign will be challenged by groups with different and, sometimes, deliberately misleading messages. For every social marketing effort, there are contradictory public relations efforts underway to discredit and challenge its validity.
This module introduces the tools used to influence and engage supportive stakeholders and also how to anticipate and weaken threats from groups opposed to the health communication message.
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There is a barrage of health communication directed towards the American public by professionals, businesses, consumer groups, and governmental agencies of all levels. Ethical lapses in these health communications can result in significant legal issues and provide ineffective or even harmful information. In this discussion assignment, you will provide recommendations on how the communications provider can limit and manage ethical issues.
The readings for this module include ethical considerations for the practice of health communication. Using these readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, respond to the following.
• Select an example of an ethical concern related to public relations, the professional medical community, or constituency relations.
• Examine strategies to prevent or reduce this concern.
Support your statements with examples and scholarly references.
Write your initial response in 1–2 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.
By Friday, February 7, 2014, post your response to the appropriate Discussion Area. Through Wednesday, February 12, 2014, review and comment on at least two peers’ responses.
Assignment 1 Grading Criteria Maximum Points
Analyzed an ethical concern related to public relations, the professional medical community, or constituency relations, providing a thorough explanation of strategies to prevent or reduce the concern. 12
Actively contributed to the discussion by providing points of view with rationale, challenging points of the discussion, or drawing relationships between points of the discussion. 12
Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. 4
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