The Council Statute of 1436 prohibited anyone within a radius of 50 miles from Fabriano buildings from manufacturing paper or teaching paper making secrets to those not residing within the Council territory, pending a fine of 50 ducats.
A later prohibition has even stiffer penalties.
(Hunter 1943,4) Before the 3rd century AD, the first paper was made of disintegrating cloth- bark of trees and vegetation such as mulberry, hemp, china grass (Hunter 1943,56)Paper was used in China from AD 868, for engraving religious pictures and reached its height of in 1634 with the wooden block prints made popular by Sung Ying-hsing.
The technology of making paper moved from China to Japan and then to Korea in AD 610 where it was commonly made from mulberry bark and Gampi.
This breakthrough in papermaking technology fueled a huge expansion in business that eventually led to the development of the modern corporation, which was unable to function without tremendous supplies of paper. The paper industry in the 1850s created changes so far-reaching that it was one of the transformative factors in the development of the United States. Not the least revolutionary change was the astounding drop in newsprint prices that advances in papermaking technology afforded - newsprint prices that were 28 cents per pound in 1864 had plunged to two cents or less per pound by 1897.
Paper as we know it today comes from another source - China. Excavations of tombs of the former Han Dynasty (207BC-9AD) have revealed silk cloth bearing the texts of Lao Tzu - the father of Taoism (born in 604BC). In 105 AD, Han Emperor Ho-Ti's chief eunuch T'sai Lun experimented with a wide variety of materials and refined the process of macerating the fibre of plants until each filament was completely separate.
The individual fibres were mixed with water in a large vat. Next, a screen was submerged in the vat and lifted up through the water,catching the fibers on its surface. When dried, this thin layer of intertwined fiber became what today we call paper. T'sai Lun's thin, yet flexible and strong paper with its fine, smooth surface was known as T'sai Ko-Shi , meaning: "Distinguished T'sai's Paper" and he became revered as the patron saint of papermaking.
Facial tissue: The class of soft, absorbent papers in the sanitary tissue group. Originally used for removal of creams, oil, and so on, from the skin, it is now used in large volume for packaged facial tissue, toilet paper, paper napkins, professional towels, industrial wipes, and for hospital items. Most facial tissue is made of bleached sulfite or sulfate pulp, sometimes mixed with bleached and mechanical pulp, on a single-cylinder or fourdrinier machine. Desirable characteristics are softness, strength, and freedom from lint.
Papermaking spread slowly throughout Asia to Nepal and later to India. It made its true push westward in 751AD when the Tang Dynasty was at war with the Islamic world. During a battle on the banks of the Tarus river, Islamic warriors captured a Chinese caravan which happened to include several papermakers. They spirited them away to Samarkand, which soon became a great centre for paper production.
The demand for paper also created the need for greater efficiency in production. In the late 18th century the labours of Nicholas Luis Robert resulted in the creation of a machine that could produce a seamless length of paper on a endless wire mesh with squeeze rollers at one end. Perfected and marketed by the Fourdrinier brothers, the new machine made papers soon replaced traditional single sheets made by hand.
The fibres are beaten in a blender or by hand to a creamy pulp. At this stage, dyes can be added to create coloured papers. The pulp is poured into a large tub and the fibres are suspended in the water. The artisan dips a framed screen into the water and with great skill, lifts it to the surface catching the fibres onto the screen. The screens can either be left in the sun to dry, or be transferred to boards, pressed, smoothed and then dried.