Problems of interpretation arise when researchers get a statistically non-significant effect. If the sample size is too small--as in almost all studies in sport and exercise science--you can get a statistically non-significant effect even when there is a substantial effect in the population. Authors of small-scale studies who do not understand this point will interpret a statistically non-significant effect incorrectly as evidence for no effect. So whenever you see a result that is not statistically significant, ignore what the author concludes and look at the size of the effect in question: if the effect is nearly zero and the sample size is reasonable, chances are there is indeed no worthwhile relationship in the population; if the effect is large, there may well be a substantial relationship in the population. But in either case, a bigger sample is required to be sure about what is going on. Sometimes the research may have been done: for example, moderate but non-significant effects in several studies probably add up to a moderate real effect, if the designs are trustworthy.
The descriptions below are examples of the research foci of this grant program and are provided to guide potential applicants to determine whether a given scientific topic may be appropriate for this initiative. These descriptions are not intended to be comprehensive. In addition, given the complexity of drug abuse research, it is permitted to conduct the proposed dissertation research in conjunction with an ongoing research study or to use extant data. Research studies focused on HIV/AIDS and Health Disparities are encouraged.
For Sportscience reviews, follow the instructions in the template on how to create figures. See below for examples (Figures 1-4). Paste figures and tables into the document after the paragraph where you first refer to them. (In other journals tables and figures go at the end of the manuscript.)
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The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) announces the availability of NIH Dissertation Award grants (R36) to support drug abuse doctoral dissertation research in NIDA areas of priority ( ). Areas of focus include research on basic and clinical neuroscience and behavior, developmental trajectories, epidemiology, prevention, treatment, services, and/or women and sex/gender differences. Grant support is designed to encourage doctoral candidates from a variety of academic disciplines and programs to conduct research in these areas of interest to NIDA. It is hoped that this program will ultimately facilitate the entry of promising new investigators into the field of drug abuse research and promote transdisciplinary collaborations.
Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary. For example: "A search for produced 774 references, which reduced to 559 when we limited the search to intermediate or advanced levels (). Further restricting the search to produced 75 references. We read 47 of these as full papers. Of the 41 papers cited in this review, we were able to obtain the following only in abstract form: Jones et al. (1979) and Smith and Brown (1987)." Describe and justify briefly any papers or areas that you decided not to include.
In this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized (for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript), and how you found them (for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus).
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NIDA supports more than 85 percent of the world's research on the health aspects of drug abuse and addiction. Research supported by NIDA encompasses basic, behavioral, and applied sciences related to the underlying mechanisms and health effects of drugs of abuse. This FOA is to provide students with grant-in-aid support to perform drug abuse dissertation research on a topic related to the study of development, epidemiology, prevention, treatment, services, or women and sex/gender differences, and thereby increase the pool of highly talented drug abuse scientists who conduct research in these areas.
In the statistical approach, effects or outcomes are expressed as statistics that are independent of the units of measurement of the original variables. These statistics are the same ones referred to in the previous subsection: relative risk, variance explained, and effect size. Statisticians have come up with rules of thumb for deciding whether the magnitude of the effect is to be considered trivial, small, moderate, or large. For example, claims that an effect size of 0.2, a variance explained of 1% (equivalent to a correlation coefficient of 0.1), and a relative risk of 1.2 are the smallest effects worth detecting. I have extended Cohen's scale to effects of any magnitude, and I have made adjustments to his scale ().