Below is an example of a reference list displaying various resource types including a book, DVD, journal article, legislation, newspaper article, report, social media entry and thesis.
Generally, conference papers are published within conference proceedings, either online or in print. In most cases, a conference paper (rather than the conference proceedings) will be used as a reference.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
A white paper is a certain type of report that is distinctive in terms of purpose, audience, and organization. This resource will explain these issues and provide some other tips to enhance white paper content.
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered in chapter 6 of the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Use primary references. Text books are not primary referencesand neither are most popular accounts such as newspaper articles or TIMEmagazine articles, or even books like Colbert's "The Dinosaur Book".
A WWW site is not an acceptable reference. I very stronglyrecommend surfing the web for resources on dinosaurs and related topics,however, the information you collect must have a literature reference nota Web reference.
For Print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
The audience for a white paper can be the general public or multiple companies that seek solutions to their problems or needs. Typically, you will not know your audience personally, unlike when you write a recommendation report for your client. And yet, in order to persuade your audience, you need to focus on their needs. If you can address the problems that your readers want to solve, they will read your white paper for a solution. Otherwise, your white paper may not be read. It is important to emphasize your readers' interests rather than your interests, as shown in the example below:
Online library databases are databases of abstracts and full text general and scholarly articles. These articles are often republished from a printed edition of a journal, newspaper, or magazine. This means that with a bit or work, you can find hard copies of these sources outside on the internet. Subscription databases may be general or specific and tend to contain the most current information on a topic. These databases are a good place to refine searches to scholarly (peer-reviewed) texts only.
Whenever you use information that is not your own within your paper, you must include an in-text, or parenthetical, citation. An in-text citation must be used when paraphrasing, commenting on, quoting, or referencing any information from an outside source. Your citation should come right after the referenced information and before the period at the end of the sentence.
For international students, it’s especially important to review and understand the citation standards and expectations for institutions of higher learning in the United States. Students who have done their college preparation at schools in other countries may have learned research and paper-writing practices different from those at Princeton. For example, students from schools in East Asia may learn that copying directly from sources, without citation, is the proper way to write papers and do research. Students in France, preparing for the Baccalaureate examination, may be encouraged to memorize whole passages from secondary sources and copy them into papers and exam essays. Those cultural differences can sometimes lead to false assumptions about citation practices and expectations at Princeton. Again, you are responsible for reading and understanding the University’s academic regulations as defined and explained in You must ask for assistance from your professors or preceptors if you’re not sure.