These results generally agree with previous studies. A report from the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study among 304 ASD cases and 259 controls, in several areas in California, used residential address history reported by parents to calculate distance to roads as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution exposure and found increased risk for ASD among women who lived in proximity to a freeway (). Further analysis of the CHARGE study group in a subset of 279 cases and 245 controls using data from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System suggested positive associations of ASD with traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy, and specifically with PM2.5 (). ASD was also associated with pregnancy exposure to PM10, and—in contrast to our results—the association with traffic-related air pollution exposure during the first year of life was higher than that found for the exposure during pregnancy. In the CHARGE study, associations were also seen with exposures in the year after birth that were about as strong as exposures during pregnancy. Our findings suggested a weaker association with postpregnancy exposure that was essentially null in models that included exposure during all time periods. In the CHARGE study, however, the pregnancy and postpregnancy exposure periods were not included together in the same regression model.
Our goal was to explore the association between ASD and exposure to PM during defined time periods before, during, and after pregnancy, within the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), a large, well-defined cohort with detailed residential history. This nested case–control study includes participants from across the continental United States, and exposure was linked to monthly data on two size fractions of PM.
Using one New England amputee’s story as a case study, University of Delaware Department of History PhD candidate Nicole Belolan will explore what it was like to be disabled with a mobility impairment before the era of orthopedic accessory manufacturers, curb cuts, and accessible restrooms at the final History Workshop for the Fall 2015 semester on Tuesday, November 17, 2015 at 12:30 pm. in 203 Munroe Hall.