The two words “Glass Ceiling” are used to describe the barrier that exists for women and minorities-when it comes to getting promoted into the upper echelons of a company.
In 1995, the Glass Ceiling Commission released its first report and found that only 5 percent of the senior-level managers in Fortune 1000 companies are women.
Previous studies assert that glass ceiling effect is greatly witnessed by well educated labor force as compared to the less educated or skilled ones. According to Federal Glass Ceiling Commission 95-97% of senior managers in fortune 1000 industrial and Fortune 500 are male, 97% are white, while the ethnic minorities and women contributed to 57% of the workforce. The study also found there were great remuneration disparities among Hispanic, Asian Americans who held comparable positions. Additionally it was found that African Americans earned 21% less as compared to their white counterparts. (Hester 2007; Department of Labor USA 2010; Becker 1997; Schuler 2003)
Glass ceiling concept originally depicted women’s blocked promotion opportunities in a companies. Later this concept was applied to the ethnic minorities. Glass Ceiling effects is a term used to refer to invisible barriers that limit minorities or women advancement in organization hierarchy. This barrier confronts minorities and women in their effort to reach higher management levels in many organizations. Glass ceiling is different from formal barriers such experience requirements and educations which greatly determines an employee advancement in the organization. According to Glass Ceiling Commission established by the U.S. Department of Labor Glass ceiling are artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management-level positions’. The aspects of the race and gender have continued to influence corporations hiring, promotion, job assignment at all education levels- subtle gender and racial discrimination still exist. In some cases, glass ceiling has been in form of discrimination such as sexism. Additionally, it has also been evident in performance evaluations as well as salary and benefits systems. (Burke & Martis 2007 p130; Morrison etal 1987; Dubek.1979)
In their study where they studied data from panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine gender and race inequalities, Cotter etal (2001) found out that there existed glass ceiling effects for women, but found no similar pattern on racial inequalities among men. They also asserted that not all systems of differential work systems depict glass ceilings.
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The term glass ceiling refers to the invisible barriers that prevent women from succeeding and moving up the metaphoric ladder in the corporate world....
The historical believes that men are more worthy than women continues to intimidate women efforts in proving this wrong. The fact that the Citigroup Inc. board of directors constitutes of men only is a clear indication how the Glass Ceiling effect has adversely affected women effort to reach a higher level of management in many corporations. Women face sexism based discrimination in many organizations, both profit and non profit organizations as well as in government sector. A board of directors, constituting of men only, shows how this company has continued to dwell in olds days where men are considered more capable than women. The Glass ceiling effect has continued to place barriers against women endeavor in achieving success in their careers and participation in their work place. Despite women having a great contribution to the economy they have continued to face the Green Ceiling barriers that have hindered their effort to be managers and CEOs to big companies in the world. Generally, women lag behind in terms of reward and promotion as compared to their men counterparts as it is clear with the management in the Citigroup Inc. The Glass Ceiling barriers placed by organizations, which are usually led by men, can be blamed for this undesirable condition.
The purpose of this paper is to provide background as well as a more in-depth analysis of the glass ceiling phenomenon and apply a human-capitalistic theorist perspective to the issues....
It is apparent that the Glass Ceiling effect has continued to be practiced by many big organizations in the world. Citigroup Inc. has not been exceptional. Despite its efforts to promote women and minority hiring, it still has a long way to go and allow workers from these groups to be part of the top management. There is also a need for all corporations’ leaders to have a will to combat this practice. They should appreciate that the minorities and women are equally capable as compared to the white and men counterparts.
A glass ceiling is an unacknowledged barrier to advancement in a profession, especially affecting women and members of a minority (Oxford Dictionaries 2014).
This is known today as the glass ceiling, which is defined by Merriam Webster’s online encyclopedia as “an intangible barrier within a hierarchy that prevents women or minorities from obtaining upper-level positions” (“Glass”)....
It has been common to find that women previously on track to break through the "glass ceiling" have been transferred instead to the "mommy track," forced to choose between family and career.