Wakefield has been unable to reproduce his results in the face of criticism, and other researchers have been unable to match them. Most of his co-authors withdrew their names from the study in 2004 after learning he had had been paid by a law firm that intended to sue vaccine manufacturers -- a serious conflict of interest he failed to disclose. After years on controversy, the Lancet, the prestigious journal that originally published the research, retracted Wakefield's paper last February.
According to BMJ, Wakefield received more than 435,000 pounds ($674,000) from the lawyers. Godlee said the study shows that of the 12 cases Wakefield examined in his paper, five showed developmental problems before receiving the MMR vaccine and three never had autism.
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The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between agricultural pesticide applications and neurodevelopmental outcomes by a) assessing the gestational exposure during pregnancy to CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genes and Environment) study mothers, b) testing the hypothesis that children with ASD or DD had higher risk of exposure in utero than typically developing children, and c) evaluating specific windows of vulnerability during gestation. Because of the well-defined case and control populations in the CHARGE study and the comprehensive availability of potential confounders, this analysis serves as exploratory research to identify environmental risk factors for ASD and DD, and contributes to a broader understanding of the potential risks to neurodevelopment from agricultural pesticides in a diverse population of California residents.
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What is the purpose of analyzing the situation or problem described in the case? (Respond to this as an who is a problem solver, rather than as a learner for whom the purpose of analyzing a case is also to complete an assignment, or learn about problem analysis.)
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What assumptions are being made by those involved in the case? Identify main assumptions about the problems, issues or questions being made by characters in the case. What are your own assumptions in analyzing the case?
Multiple Perspectives: Identify different ways the issues may be viewed by those involved or affected by the problem, issue or question, and explain the potential impact of these perspectives on the case. What is your point of view and how does it affect your analysis?
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"It's one thing to have a bad study, a study full of error, and for the authors then to admit that they made errors," Fiona Godlee, BMJ's editor-in-chief, told CNN. "But in this case, we have a very different picture of what seems to be a deliberate attempt to create an impression that there was a link by falsifying the data."
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Methods: The CHARGE study is a population-based case–control study of ASD, DD, and typical development. For 970 participants, commercial pesticide application data from the California Pesticide Use Report (1997–2008) were linked to the addresses during pregnancy. Pounds of active ingredient applied for organophophates, organochlorines, pyrethroids, and carbamates were aggregated within 1.25-km, 1.5-km, and 1.75-km buffer distances from the home. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of exposure comparing confirmed cases of ASD (n = 486) or DD (n = 168) with typically developing referents (n = 316).
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