8. DOCTORAL PROGRAMMES
The hierarchy of advanced scientific degrees in Russia traditionally includes Doctor's degrees of two levels: Candidate of Sciences (Kandidat Nauk) and Doctor of Sciences (Doktor Nauk).
The Candidate of Sciences degree normally requires three years of study after the award of Specialist or Magistr degrees. After three years programme the Diploma of Aspirantura Completion is awarded. To obtain the Diploma of Kandidat Nauk an applicant must successfully defend a dissertation.
The Doctor of Sciences degree can be earned after a period of further study following the award of the Candidate of Sciences degree. In reality, to earn a Doctor of Sciences degree requires five to fifteen years beyond the award of the Candidate of Sciences degree.
Both university level higher education and research institutions have the right to set up doctoral study programs. The Federal Service for Supervision in Education and Science is responsible for supervision of doctoral studies. Upon the decision of this body, doctoral study programs (Aspirantura - for the Candidate of Sciences degree and Doctorantura - for the Doctor of Sciences degree) can be opened in those HEIs and research institutions that possess the required personnel as well as scientific and financial resources. HEIs must be accredited, and research institutions must have a license granting them the right to carry out educational activities.
The defense of doctoral dissertation is carried out before a Dissertation Council. Dissertation Councils are organized by the Higher Attestation Committee (Vysshij Attestatsionnyj Komitet – part of the Ministry of Education and Science) to accept dissertations in given fields of science for evaluation and hearing in accredited HE and research institutions. Kandidat Nauk and Doktor Nauk degrees are awarded by the dissertation councils in question and approved by the Higher Attestation Commission.
A defense of the dissertation is held in the form of a public presentation and scientific debates.
A list of 19 universities, which are entitled to award degrees was approved by government decree of August 23, 2017 № 1792-p.
Recognition of foreign qualifications is implemented in a diversified model.
is the agency responsible for recognition procedure throughout the country. It is the only national body empowered to take decisions on recognition of qualifications/degrees both in academic and professional purposes, with the exception of research/scientific degrees. Technically this function implements its subordinate organization .
At the same time leading Russian universities are authorized to make assessment and take decision on recognition of all foreign qualifications, including doctoral degrees, in both academic and professional purposes for their own needs. The rest of HEIs are eligible to accept foreign qualifications only if they fall within the scope between Russia and other countries.
The qualifications/degrees originated from world prominent universities (more than 200), listed by are also accepted by all Russian educational institutions and companies without a procedure of formal recognition.
is entitled to make assessment of any foreign doctoral degree and draft recognition decision, which is taken by the Ministry of education and science. It is manifested by the Ministerial order on recognition of foreign degree/s.
State Scientific Academies are also empowered to make assessment and to take recognition decisions on foreign doctoral degree relevant to their field of research activity.
Besides, doctoral degrees which fall within the scope of bilateral recognition agreements on doctoral degrees between Russia and other countries are accepted in all HEIs, research centers and companies without passing formal recognition procedure.
is responsible for provision of information on recognition in the Russian Federation.
is responsible for provision of information on Russian education and qualifications, especially in cases when there is a need for such information from the part of recognition bodies and individuals abroad, who have any Russian qualifications on recognition procedure, as well as for a wider range of stakeholders (see: ).
Pre-school education is provided by licensed institutions for children up to age 6,5 - 7 years, that is, before they enter formal school. Currently, almost 100% of children of the respective age groups covered by pre-school education.
Primary general education comprises grades 1-4, from the age of 7 to 10 years.
Lower secondary education takes 5 years and comprises grades 5–9, from the age of 11 to 15 years.
Upper secondary education takes two years (grades 10–11). Students complete secondary education at the age of 17-18 years.
All four levels of general education are provided on the basis of their own federal state standards. Secondary general education with 11 years of formal schooling is compulsory since September 1, 2007.
General education curricula normally stipulate 34 weeks of study per year and, as a rule, 27 to 38 hours of study per week. The school year starts on 1 September and runs through the beginning of June. Unified State Examinations scheduled in the end of May - beginning of June are culminating school studies.
A state educational standard for general education lays down requirements to the minimum content of education and the workload of students. It also prescribes compulsory fields of study (humanities with emphasis on Russian language, literature, social sciences, and physical education; natural sciences with priority given to mathematics; technology). Social sciences include such subjects as foreign languages, Russian history, world history, economic and social geography, law, political science, economics, etc. Natural sciences cover biology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, ecology, etc. Technology normally includes drawing and a number of disciplines for the imparting of certain basic skills of general utility for pupils, such as home economics, sewing, cooking, metal work, carpentry, etc. In upper school grades basic skills for the exercise of certain professions are offered. Local authorities and schools have the right to set up good proportion of curriculum. In practice each school designs its own curriculum, basing it upon the state education standard named the Basic curriculum. Latest standards of general education give more initiative to local authorities and schools in designing curricula with the purpose to facilitate independent activity of students.
Russia has well-developed networks of schools offering advanced programs which are based on the Basic curriculum and can be offered in a number of ways: On completion of lower secondary education (grade 9), students take final examinations (state final attestation) and they are awarded the Certificate of Basic General Education (Attestat ob osnovnom obshchem obrazovanii). This Certificate entitles its holder to be admitted either to secondary general education or to technical and vocational education and training (srednee professionalnoe obrazovanie). Holders of such certificates should be trained for 1 year longer in all training programs in comparison with those students who have graduated upper secondary education (grade 11). This allows them to explore upper secondary education and have the right to take Unified State Exams.
On completion of upper secondary education (grade 11) a school leaving certificate is awarded. The name of this qualification is the Certificate of Secondary General Education (Attestat o srednem obshchem obrazovanii).
The general secondary school study program is culminated with mandatory state final attestation of each graduate in the Russian language and mathematics, which is an obligatory part of the Unified State Examinations (USE). Graduates who have successfully passed the USE in Russian language and mathematics are issued Certificate of Secondary General Education (). In this Certificate the final marks are set, which are defined as the average of annual assessments for graduate in grades 10 and 11.
The Certificate of Secondary General Education confirms the possession of a complete school education and the right of a graduate to continue education in a higher education institution first cycle university education). Admission to Russian higher education institutions is carried out on a competitive basis. For this purpose, a high school graduate must take part in the passing of Unified State Examination.
Exams in other subjects, such as: literature, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, history, social studies, foreign languages, informatics and ICT graduates pass as a part of the USE on a voluntary basis and by their own choice. Graduates who have passed the state final attestation in the form of the NSE are given a Certificate of the USE results. In Certificate the results in the subjects on which assessment is not below the approved minimum level are indicated. These results are presented for competition of applicants to those universities, which school graduate plans to enter (up to 5 universities). Nearly 100% of new students are admitted to HEIs by the result of the Unified State Exams now. A very small number of graduates accepted to universities without the USE based on the successful participation in the All-Russian school competitions.
Thus, the holder of a school leaving certificate with the NSE grades in mathematics and Russian language not below the minimum specified mathematics - 27 points, the Russian language -24 points) are eligible to enter the university. However, a graduate must still participate in the competitive selection of applicants. Voluntary sitting exams in other the USE subjects allows graduates to participate in the competition of applicants to universities. Uniform State Exams is a screening tool of graduates based on the competition results of their individual scores.
Public and private schools at all levels are required to go through the procedure of state accreditation, which is held by the local authorities. A successful passing through this procedures leads to authorization to issue nationally recognized school leaving certificates.
Unit 3: Specialist Study Unit
This unit offers students the opportunity to develop analytical and evaluative skills through the study of literacy or media texts, or through the study of a thematic aspect of the country/countries of the modern language.
Please also see a member of staff if you are interested in doing the Modern Languages Bacalaureat. This consists of a combination of one Higher and two Advanced Highers in a language or English plus an inter-disciplinary project. The project can also be done as a stand-alone unit if you do not have the right combination of subjects.